CREATINE

CREATINE โ€“ THE GRANDADDY OF GAINS!

Creatine Monohydrate is possibly the single most well-researched and effective ergogenic supplement available on the market. Quite literally, Creatine helps with exercise performance by rapidly reproducing more energy during intense activity. Beyond its physical performance benefits, Creatine may also provide cognitive benefits, though more research is needed to support this theory.

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  • Creatine Mechanism of Action:
    • You may remember from science class that Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is your bodyโ€™s most immediate source of pure energy. ATP emits energy when it undergoes a rapid chemical reaction called hydrolysis. During ATP hydrolysis, the breaking of a high-energy bond results in one of the phosphate groups from ATP being broken off, giving the lower energy byproducts Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic Phosphate (Pi).
      • ADP can also be further hydrolyzed into Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) and Pi to release some more energy.
      • Figure 1 โ€“ ATP Hydrolysis
    • To continue to produce rapid energy, your body needs to replenish its ATP While your body is able to produce some ATP from dietary carbohydrates and muscle glycogen stores, this process is rather slow. This is where Creatine comes into play. Creatine is naturally occurring in your body already, and it is bioavailable from some foods; hence you have a baseline level of Creatine stored in your cells already. This free creatine readily pairs with free inorganic phosphate (Pi) to form Creatine Phosphate (CP). This new CP molecule acts as a phosphate donor for regenerating ATP; CP donates its Pi to ADP and AMP to restore your cellโ€™s ATP levels, thereby increasing your energy threshold [1]. This cycle is never ending, and critical for homeostatic energy production.
    • However, these physiological levels of creatine are not enough to experience performance enhancement. By supplementing with Creatine, we can saturate our cells with higher levels of Creatine and Creatine Phosphate stores [2, 3]. This saturation is what leads to robust energy reproduction and enhanced strength and power output during intense exercise [4]. Long-term supplementation with Creatine ultimately results in increased muscle mass and lean body weight when combined with resistance training [5, 6, 7, 3, 8].
      • Figure 2 โ€“ ATP Energy Production and Regeneration
    • Creatine Supplementation:
      • The research available indicates that supplementing with 3,000-5,000 mg of Creatine Monohydrate daily is sufficient for the popular majority to achieve its optimal strength and performance benefits.
      • Other forms of Creatine are available and have been studied, but there is insufficient evidence to claim that any are more effective that Creatine Monohydrate.
      • Athletes with significantly higher muscle mass may benefit from up to 10,000 mg of Creatine Monohydrate supplementation, without any negative side-effects.
PRIME(X) contains 5,000 mg of Creatine Monohydrate per serving to ensure optimal energy production and performance during intense exercise!ย 

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References:

  1. Farshidfar F, Pinder MA, Myrie SB. Creatine Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism for Building Muscle Mass- Review of the Potential Mechanisms of Action. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2017;18(12):1273-1287. doi: 10.2174/1389203718666170606105108. PMID: 28595527.
  2. del Favero S, Roschel H, Artioli G, Ugrinowitsch C, Tricoli V, Costa A, Barroso R, Negrelli AL, Otaduy MC, da Costa Leite C, Lancha-Junior AH, Gualano B. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance. Amino Acids. 2012 Jun;42(6):2299-305. doi: 10.1007/s00726-011-0972-5. Epub 2011 Jul 9. PMID: 21744011.
  3. Spillane M, Schoch R, Cooke M, Harvey T, Greenwood M, Kreider R, Willoughby DS. The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 19;6:6. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-6-6. PMID: 19228401; PMCID: PMC2649889.
  4. Bazzucchi I, Felici F, Sacchetti M. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on neuromuscular function. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Oct;41(10):1934-41. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a2c05c. PMID: 19727018.
  5. Bemben MG, Witten MS, Carter JM, Eliot KA, Knehans AW, Bemben DA. The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010 Feb;14(2):155-9. doi: 10.1007/s12603-009-0124-8. PMID: 20126965.
  6. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Jun;13(2):198-226. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.13.2.198. PMID: 12945830.
  7. Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, Candow DG, Mahoney D, Tarnopolsky M. Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Nov;35(11):1946-55. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000093614.17517.79. PMID: 14600563.
  8. Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, Mangine G, Faigenbaum A, Stout J. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Aug;16(4):430-46. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.16.4.430. PMID: 17136944.

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    Figure 1 โ€“ ATP Hydrolysis

    Figure 2 โ€“ ATP Energy Production and Regeneration